Harnessing Lithium-Proton Nuclear Fusion
Fusion Technology Summary
In the simplest terms, we have taken a mercury vapor lamp, changed its fuel and wrapped coils around and added a more sophisticated ballast control to extract fusion energy. Of course, it is far more complicated than that, but that is the fusion reactor idea in a nutshell.
It is this combination of the lithium-proton fuel, external alpha sources, electron screening and tunneling, coulomb explosions, in a magnetic field along with the Rydberg matter nature of the fuel that sets the conditions for fusion reactions. Then with the pulse of an electrical arc, like in a xenon arc searchlight of old the fusion energy occurs than fizzles. We capture the energy of this reaction via diamagnetic pressure that is inductively coupled to external coils that surround the reaction chamber to produce electricity.
Each pulse of the electrical arc releases a large amount of radiation free fusion energy; the power output in the energy per pulse is multiplied by the frequency. A pulsed approach gives great design flexibility, trading off energy per arc and frequency.
Electric Fusion Systems is developing a portable, appliance-sized fusion technology consisting of a stainless-steel reactor vessel, the lithium-proton fuel inside, primary arc electrodes and inductively coupled extraction coils along with a power supply that controls the magnetic field oscillation, arcing and power extraction rates.
Our goal is to create cartridges and fusion power modules that can be mixed and matched to achieve long duration (decades) of low or high-power output targeted to the respective application. Yet, we also can load-follow and drive up the power output, consuming more lithium or less within certain parameters. This clean energy approach also can support multiple phases of electric power and provide redundancy to ensure grid reliability and resilience too.
The fusion power plant designs we envision allow for simple and modular scale-up. If you want a 10-megawatt transformer for an electrical substation there are no physics issues; it is a matter of good engineering execution, time, money, and strategic partners.
Pictured is a small fusion prototype (less the electronic controls and power supply) that is capable of kilowatts of power output.
The EFS design variables that we can adjust or tune for optimal output are many. For example, we know that physical pressure can improve the fusion rates, along with higher electrical arcing currents, magnetic field strength, alpha particles, and different concentrations of fusion fuel. Tuning and optimizing these parameters will lead to more cost-effective fusion power generators along with volume production.
Ultimately, the economics will not be driven by the cost of lithium metal, but by power semiconductor pricing, stainless steel prices, labor automation and target industry regulations. Unlike other fusion power approaches, EFS has a clear opportunity to lower the cost of electricity by > 10x.
Frequently Asked Questions
EFS was founded in 2020 by Ken E. Kopp and Ryan S. Wood to advance a breakthrough approach to safe, cost-effective fusion power with the lowest cost of energy in a small and scalable way with a clean environmental profile. With our patent pending approaches EFS is poised to deliver a transformational energy source capable of supporting the planet for centuries. EFS is based in Colorado and is using our proprietary science insights and engineering to deliver a global transformation for all humanity.
The first thing to recognize is that all fusion efforts have failed to deliver on the promise. Over $50 billion has been spent and there are no successful reactors producing electricity. These scientific approaches, no matter how sophisticated by some of the brightest minds in the world, have all failed and the promise is always ten or more years off.
EFS (Electric Fusion Systems) stands out from other fusion efforts in several ways. One of the key differences is the use of Heavy Rydberg Matter (HRM) as a fuel source. HRM is a unique form of matter that consists of ultra-dense clusters of electrons and nuclei, which allows for a reduction in Coulomb repulsion during fusion reactions.
Additionally, EFS uses a low-temperature plasma, around 10,000 Kelvin, which allows for a more controlled and efficient fusion process. This contrasts with other fusion efforts that rely on high-temperature plasmas or lasers.
EFS is also focused on creating a modular, scalable fusion reactor design that can be easily adapted to meet various energy demands. This approach aims to reduce the cost and complexity of traditional fusion reactor designs and increase accessibility to fusion energy.
Proton-lithium fusion is a preferred pathway for fusion because it has several advantages over other fusion reactions. One advantage is that the reaction does not produce any radioactive waste or hazardous materials, unlike other fusion reactions that use deuterium and tritium, which can produce neutrons that can activate surrounding materials. Another advantage is that proton-lithium fusion can produce more energy per unit of fuel than other fusion reactions. Additionally, lithium is abundant in nature and can be easily obtained, making it a more sustainable fuel source. Finally, proton-lithium fusion has a lower activation energy requirement compared to other fusion reactions, which could potentially make it easier to achieve and sustain fusion.
EFS’s approach to achieving practical fusion involves the use of LEEF (Light Element Electric Fusion) technology, which utilizes a low-temperature plasma to create heavy Rydberg matter. This heavy Rydberg matter is then used to initiate proton-lithium fusion, which is a highly efficient fusion reaction that produces large amounts of energy with very little radiation.
The fusion reaction parameters of LEEF create an energy surplus condition because our proprietary fuel modifies the coulomb barrier through the electron screening, Rydberg matter and coulomb explosions. It is this combination of our clean energy fuel, which already starts out as a very dense plasma and oscillating from fusion then fizzle that enables a different way of achieving useable fusion energy.
Unlike other fusion technologies that require extremely high temperatures and pressures to initiate fusion, the LEEF technology can achieve fusion at much lower temperatures and pressures, making it more practical for commercial use. Additionally, the LEEF technology does not require the use of lasers, which are typically very expensive and difficult to maintain.
Overall, EFS’s approach to achieving practical fusion is based on a combination of innovative technologies and a deep understanding of the physics behind fusion reactions. By utilizing low-temperature plasma and heavy Rydberg matter, EFS can create an efficient and practical fusion technology that has the potential to revolutionize the energy industry.
Since our fusion reactions do not continuously sustain fusion chain reactions and our fuel is already orders of magnitude denser that traditional deuterium tritium fusion fuels, we do not need the massive magnetic or electrostatic confinement, typical of multi-story fusion experimental reactors of the past or modern competitors.
The scalability of EFS products depends on various factors, including the size and complexity of the system, the materials used, and the specific application. The key to scaling EFS products is to optimize the design and materials used to ensure that the fusion reaction is efficient and stable at larger scales. This may involve developing new technologies and materials, such as advanced cooling systems or high-strength materials that can withstand the high temperatures and pressures generated by the fusion reaction.
We have shrunk the electrochemical apparatus to the size of a small appliance, and we can go smaller and larger for electrical power generation based on our cartridge design. How we do this is an artifact of the revolutionary approach of the EFS fuel insights and fusion reactor design. For example, the suitcase-sized portable fusion generator is designed to produce small amounts of energy, while larger systems can be built for industrial or commercial applications.
Overall, while there may be some challenges in scaling up EFS products, the team is optimistic that their technology can be adapted to meet a wide range of energy needs, from portable generators to large-scale power plants.
EFS’s approach to fusion is unique and promising for several reasons. First, the company focuses on proton-lithium fusion, which has several advantages over other fusion pathways, including high energy yield and the ability to use abundant and relatively cheap fuels. Second, EFS uses a low-temperature plasma to create heavy Rydberg matter, which reduces coulomb repulsion and enables fusion reactions at relatively low temperatures and pressures.
Moreover, EFS’s technology does not require the use of lasers, which are expensive and complex, and can be difficult to scale up. Instead, EFS uses a large volume photoionization process to create a coulomb explosion that leads to fusion events. This approach is more practical and cost-effective than traditional laser-driven fusion approaches.
The science behind aneutronic fusion and particularly proton + lithium fusion is well documented in the scientific peer-reviewed literature.
Today, EFS has built a series of laboratory experiments that show fusion reactions on laboratory table top as evidence in part by the generation of helium atoms. This is confirmed via neutron detection, and optical spectroscopy that substantiates fusion reactions. There are also historical experiments in capillary fusion that support our insights. Yet, EFS is on the cutting edge, there is not a rich paper trail of peer-reviewed science that is on point. If there were, our approach would be known, and the world would be different.
The science behind all aspects of our fusion energy apparatus and approach to the practical fusion problem is grounded in known and practiced science. Scores of scientific papers dance around the edge of our insights, in Rydberg matter, noble gases and coulomb explosions. For example, there are supporting papers in magnetic and electrical fields to plasma physics, pressure confinement, electromagnetic pulses, and energy extraction via inductive coupling. It is the novel combination of our special fusion fuel and traditional electrical engineering and plasma physics that enables the clean energy breakthrough.
At the atomic scale, EFS’s technology uses a process called Coulomb Explosion, which creates fusion events by inducing high velocity collisions between protons and lithium nuclei. This collision is achieved by using large-volume photoionization to create a plasma of heavy Rydberg matter. The heavy Rydberg system reduces the Coulomb repulsion between the two nuclei by shifting the electronic charge density from the low-density core to the high-density outer region, which increases the probability of fusion. The process occurs in a low-temperature plasma of approximately 10,000 Kelvin. By inducing a Coulomb explosion in this plasma, EFS can create enough energy for fusion ignition.
Proton kinetic energy required to start fusing is ~10 keV for aneutronic proton-lithium fusion. How do we get to ignition? There are complementary aspects at work, beginning with electron screening (enhanced quantum tunnelling) contributing (~0.8 keV), electrical high current arcing (10’s to 100’s of keV), noble gas heavy Rydberg matter clusters, local physical pressure, and resonant mechanical cavities. Ideally, we are confining the fuel in an axial cartridge cylinder (creating a focal point) and then driving it with electromagnetic waves at near critical density of the heavy Rydberg matter plasma. This all occurs with a resonant electrical control circuit to provide sufficient electrical energy input for fusion.
Also, there is the concept of Rydberg matter ions at a higher principal quantum number in the form of energetic clusters that collide and cascade during the coulomb explosion. Although an individual Rydberg ion fuel cluster may not have enough energy for fusion when they interact, elastically the electrostatic force will be a multiple of bond energies. As they cascade into one another they add energy with each interaction, so at the end of the coulomb explosion, some of the Rydberg cluster ions have massively more energy (100’s of keV) to impart toward a fusion reaction. Even at extremely low energy levels, a small number of fusion events yielding energy of 17.3 MeV per event cost us as little as 15 keV to initiate and reflects an ideal theoretical performance gain limit of over 1000 to 1.
EFS achieves an increase in plasma density through a process called “Rydbergization”. This process involves exciting hydrogen atoms to a high-energy state known as a “Rydberg state”, in which the electron is located far away from the nucleus. These excited atoms have much larger polarizability, which means that they can interact more strongly with an electric field. By exposing the excited atoms to an electric field, EFS can trap them and create a dense plasma with high ionization fraction. This high-density plasma allows for efficient fusion reactions to occur.
Key reasons for EFS economic superiority, (lowering the cost of electricity by 10 to 100 times), of our light element electric fusion (LEEF) power generator are the following: a LEEF reactor has no minimum critical fusion mass therefore it can be produced in small or large sizes in a factory. It cannot experience a criticality accident. It has no special nuclear materials of concern for weapons proliferation, and no high-level radioactive waste.
This set clean energy characteristics will dramatically reduce the design, licensing, construction, safety, public relations, and operating costs compared to the fission or fusion power generators they may replace; even compared to the new fission based Small Modular Reactors currently being designed to utilize high asset low enriched uranium (HALEU) fuel.
What the EFS clean energy technology enables is a small, modular, and scalable electrochemical fusion appliance that is safe and inexpensive to manufacture, in a factory rather than on an installation site. Our patent-pending embodiments create a globally transformative change in energy production delivering constant, distributed energy, anywhere, anytime, without generating greenhouse gases or other waste products. This is exemplified by the table in the competitive section of website which compares hydrocarbon power generation, solar, fission and fusion.
The EFS LEEF process aims to directly convert the fusion energy into electrical energy without the need for heat engines, turbines, or steam cycles. In this process, the fusion reaction generates a stream of charged particles, mainly protons and helium nuclei (alpha particles), which carry kinetic energy.
The charged particles are directed through a magnetic field, which causes them to follow a curved trajectory. This movement of charged particles induces an electric field, generating a current that can be extracted as electrical energy. This process is known as the electromagnetic power oscillator (EPO) effect, and it allows for direct conversion of fusion energy into electricity.
By eliminating the need for heat engines, EFS LEEF has the potential to be a more efficient and cost-effective way of generating electricity from fusion. However, the EPO effect is still in the experimental stage and requires further development and optimization for practical applications.
As the fusion reactions dance into and out of a fusion state they create a burst of electromagnetic pressure which oscillates back and forth based on how our design drives the containment vessel. This pulse of energy, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is harvested into electrical coils wrapped around the reactor and subsequently rectified via traditional power supply designs into AC or DC output at the voltage, current and frequency for the desired application, be it 800VDC for a transportation application, or 35 kilovolts AC in an electrical substation.
Fission and fusion are two physical processes that produce massive amounts of energy from atoms. They yield millions of times more energy through atom transmutation reactions. The fusion process is the exact opposite of fission.
Although both occur at the atomic level and release energy as a byproduct, fusion achieves this by combining light elements such as hydrogen, deuterium, and boron, while fission splits up heavy atoms such as uranium and plutonium. Fission is propagated by a chain reaction. Once the reaction starts, it’s hard to stop. This is not how an EFS power generator works, so it can’t meltdown—no China syndrome.
LEEF technology is designed to be inherently safe, with a low risk of accidents or radiation leaks. The fuel used in LEEF technology is non-radioactive, and the appliance design is intended to prevent runaway reactions or other safety hazards.
Fusion is a driven process, meaning all steps are deliberately initiated and actively maintained. Once the external drivers stop, the fusion process stops–faster than any kill switch or emergency power-off system could shut down a plant. Fusion possesses nature’s ultimate safety valve: there is simply no way for a meltdown to occur. In this way, fusion is an inherently safe proposition.
The specific hardware that EFS is working with, is aneutronic fusion (without neutrons—that cause radiation poisoning) in a stainless-steel vessel with a very small amount of lithium-proton fuel less than 0.2 liters. Even if the vessel were crushed and the fuel leaks out, it is less dangerous than gasoline and can be readily neutralized and cleaned-up with water.
The heavy Rydberg matter used in LEEF (Light Element Electric Fusion) fuel is a type of exotic matter that consists of a weakly bound positive and negative ion orbiting their common center of mass. This system is sometimes referred to as a heavy Rydberg atom. The heavy Rydberg matter used in LEEF is created by condensing an excited charged plasma. The large charge separation between the positive and negative ions results in an almost perfect 1/r hydrogenic potential seen by each ion.
One of the unique properties of heavy Rydberg matter is that the bond length between the positive and negative ions is about 10,000 times larger than in a typical diatomic molecule, making it extremely sensitive to perturbation by external electric and magnetic fields. The reduced mass of the system is relatively large, which leads to a very slow time evolution, making it easy to manipulate both spatially and energetically.
The heavy Rydberg matter used in LEEF fuel is the fuel source for the fusion reaction, where the positive and negative ions are brought close enough together to undergo fusion, releasing energy in the process. LEEF technology aims to harness the power of this fusion reaction as a clean and sustainable source of energy.
EFS LEEF (Electric Field Screened Light Element Electric Fusion) is a proposed nuclear fusion technology that aims to provide a clean and virtually limitless source of energy. While the feasibility of EFS LEEF has not been demonstrated experimentally, some theoretical studies suggest that it could be a promising approach to achieving controlled nuclear fusion.
One of the main advantages of EFS LEEF is that it does not require the use of lasers or high-powered magnetic fields, as is the case with other fusion approaches such as magnetic confinement fusion or inertial confinement fusion. Instead, EFS LEEF relies on a unique combination of photoionization and Coulomb explosions to create fusion events.
The EFS LEEF process involves creating heavy Rydberg matter (HRM) by condensing an excited charged plasma. The HRM is then exposed to a large volume of ionizing radiation to create a Coulomb explosion, which leads to the formation of fusion reactions.
One of the challenges of EFS LEEF is the creation and control of HRM, as well as the optimization of the ionizing radiation source. Additionally, the technical feasibility of EFS LEEF has not been demonstrated experimentally, and there are still many unknowns regarding the behavior and properties of HRM.
Despite these challenges, some researchers believe that EFS LEEF could be a promising approach to achieving controlled nuclear fusion. The process occurs at a relatively low temperature plasma of around 10,000 Kelvin, which could make it easier to achieve than other fusion technologies. Additionally, EFS LEEF does not produce significant amounts of radioactive waste, which is a major concern with current nuclear power plants.
Overall, while the technical feasibility of EFS LEEF has not been fully demonstrated, the potential benefits of this technology make it an area of active research and development.
The heavy Rydberg system used in EFS LEEF reduces Coulomb repulsion through a phenomenon called Rydberg blockade. When Rydberg atoms are excited to high-energy states, their electrons move farther away from the nucleus, leading to a significant increase in the atom’s size. As a result, these Rydberg atoms can be made to interact strongly with other Rydberg atoms that are close by, but only if they are within a certain distance range known as the blockade radius.
The blockade effect arises because the strong interaction between two nearby Rydberg atoms shifts the energy levels of the two atoms, leading to a shift of the energy levels for the whole ensemble of atoms. This makes it difficult to excite additional Rydberg atoms in the vicinity, as they would have to overcome the increased energy levels created by the interaction. As a result, Rydberg blockade prevents multiple Rydberg atoms from occupying the same volume of space at the same time, which reduces the Coulomb repulsion between them.
In the context of EFS LEEF, the heavy Rydberg matter is created by condensing an excited charged plasma. The Rydberg blockade effect is then used to reduce Coulomb repulsion between the heavy Rydberg atoms, allowing them to come together and undergo fusion reactions with higher probability. This process can potentially increase the efficiency and yield of the fusion reaction.
EFS LEEF (Energy-Filtered Self-Limiting Electromagnetic Explosive Fusion) is a novel approach to achieving nuclear fusion reactions through a process that involves the creation of heavy Rydberg matter, followed by a coulomb explosion that initiates fusion events. The process occurs in a low-temperature plasma of approximately 10,000 Kelvin.
The physics behind EFS LEEF is based on the principles of atomic physics, plasma physics, and quantum mechanics. The process begins by creating a plasma of charged particles, which are then ionized by photoionization. The ionization process causes the electrons in the plasma to become excited, which in turn creates a dense collection of heavy Rydberg matter.
Heavy Rydberg matter is a highly excited state of matter in which the electrons are in a high energy level and are held close to the nucleus of the atom. This state of matter is highly compressed and contains a large amount of energy. The creation of heavy Rydberg matter reduces the coulomb repulsion between the positively charged nuclei, allowing them to get close enough to initiate fusion events.
The next step in the EFS LEEF process involves a coulomb explosion, which is created by rapidly increasing the electric field in the plasma. This explosion causes the heavy Rydberg matter to expand rapidly, releasing a large amount of energy. This energy is then used to initiate fusion reactions between the positively charged nuclei that were previously held apart by coulomb repulsion.
The EFS LEEF process does not require the use of lasers, which is a significant advantage over other fusion technologies. Additionally, the heavy Rydberg matter created during the process allows for a reduction in the coulomb repulsion between the positively charged nuclei, which increases the probability of fusion reactions occurring.
In conclusion, the physics behind EFS LEEF is based on the principles of atomic physics, plasma physics, and quantum mechanics. The creation of heavy Rydberg matter reduces coulomb repulsion and allows for the initiation of fusion reactions through a coulomb explosion. The use of this process has the potential to revolutionize the field of nuclear fusion and provide a source of clean, sustainable energy for the world.
EFS LEEF (Light Element Electric Fusion) technology is a promising approach to achieving practical fusion energy. It utilizes a unique method of reducing Coulomb repulsion through the creation of heavy Rydberg matter, which allows for increased fusion reactions. Unlike other fusion approaches that require high-temperature plasmas or lasers, EFS LEEF operates in low-temperature plasma conditions. This enables the technology to be more efficient and cost-effective.
EFS LEEF uses proton-lithium fusion, which is considered the preferred pathway for practical fusion energy production. The technology achieves fusion by using a large volume photoionization process to create a Coulomb explosion, which initiates fusion reactions.
The LEEF technology is highly scalable, allowing it to be utilized in a wide range of applications. The technology can be scaled from an appliance-sized device to a large-scale power generator. EFS has demonstrated the viability of its approach through scientific experiments and has presented evidence showing its superiority over other fusion approaches.
EFS’s fusion power generators are expected to be disruptively low cost ($8 megawatt hour) compared to other fusion technologies. Additionally, the technology is considered safe due to its low operating temperatures, lack of radioactive waste, and benign electrical control system.
Overall, EFS LEEF technology has the potential to revolutionize the energy industry and provide a sustainable, clean, and cost-effective source of energy for the future.